See Governing Documents »
What’s on Tap?
Water Rate Changes:
Sewer Rate Changes:
Are you having problems with your trash attracting bears? You are not alone. According to the Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW) the number of bear complaints has risen sharply in the last ten years, partly due to the increase of people living in bear habitat. For lots of good information about being safe around bears and eliminating your trash as an attractant to bears, visit the NDOW website
- What is a Water Pressure Reducing Valve?
- How Does Watts Direct Acting Water Pressure Reducing Valve Work?
- Sizing a Water Pressure Reducing Valve for Your Application
- Choosing the Correct Installation Configuration
- Two-Stage Serial Reduction Configuration
- Parallel Installation
Water Pressure Reducing Valves
Ensuring Practical, Safe Working Water Pressures Municipal and private water supply companies use pumps and pumping stations to boost water supply pressures in supply mains to be able to supply water for fire fighting, high rise buildings to overcome loss of pressure as the elevation increases, and to maintain water supply in water towers and supply tanks. Pressure in water supply mains can exceed 200psi. Most plumbing codes require water pressure reducing valves on domestic systems where the municipal water main’s pressure exceeds 80psi. Higher pressures could rupture pipes, damage fixtures,and injure the people using them.
Promoting Water Conservation
High water pressures waste water. Many municipalities today not only charge homeowners and businesses high rates for water consumption, but also charge consumers equally high rates for the disposal of wastewater. Furthermore, reducing water consumption, reduces the excess energy required for heating additional hot water.
- Water Savings: Twice as much water flows through a system at 150psi pressure than at 50psi. Much of this additional water is wasted.
- Energy Savings: If less water flows through the system, then less energy is needed to heat domestic hot water. Calculations show that a Watts water pressure reducing valve can save as much as 30% on domestic water heating costs.
- Wastewater Savings: When the community’s wastewater treatment load is reduced, cost benefits accrue to both the environment and your bottom line. Many municipalities prorate sewer usage fees based upon the water meter reading.
What is a Water Pressure Reducing Valve?
There are two types of water pressure reducing valves, direct acting and pilot operated. Both use globe or angle style bodies. Valves used on smaller piping diameter units are cast from brass; larger piping diameter units are made from ductile iron. Direct acting valves, the more popular type of a water pressure reducing valves, consist of globe-type bodies with a spring-loaded, heat-resistant diaphragm connected to the outlet of the valve that acts upon a spring. This spring holds a pre-set tension on the valve seat installed with a pressure equalizing mechanism for precise water pressure control.
How Does Watts Direct Acting Water Pressure Reducing Valve Work?
Installed in series directly after the water meter in homes, commercial buildings, and manufacturing plants, a water pressure reducing valve automatically reduces the pressure fromthe water supply main to alower, more sensible pressure.
Water entering the valve from municipal mains is constricted within the valve body and directed through the inner chamber controlled by an adjustable spring loaded diaphragm and disc. Even if the supply water pressure fluctuates, the pressure reducing valve ensures a constant flow of water at a functional pressure, as long as the supply pressure does not drop below the valve’s pre-set pressure.
Sizing a Water Pressure Reducing Valve for Your Application
A properly sized valve prevents noisy operation or premature valve failure. Over sizing water pressure reducing valves can lead to problems such as wire draw under low flow conditions. In general, the minimum flow through a water pressure reducing valve should be 10% to 15% of the maximum flow rate desired in the system. Also, water pressure reducing valves should be selected based on the flow and pressure ranges listed in the literature, not the size of the pipe to which they will be attached. You should select a regulator whose operating pressures fall within the middle of its rated range.
Choosing the Correct Installation Configuration
Watts water pressure reducing valves can increase your water system’s performance, reduce operating costs, and ensure a longer life for other plumbing fixtures. Most simple pressure reducing applications require the installation of a single regulator. However, there are applications that require the use of more than one unit installed in a specific system configuration. When there is wide variation in pressure between the municipal main’s inflow pressure and the functional pressure needed within the building, or when the main’s pressure exceeds 200psi, you should consider using a two-stage, serial reduction configuration. When you want to maintain a continuous supply of water at reduced pressures, you should consider a parallel installation.
Two-Stage Serial Reduction Configuration
The two-stage serial reduction approach uses two valves in series to reduce or eliminate extreme variations between the water main’s inflow pressure and the desired, final reduced pressure. Two stage reduction is recommended when initial pressures are 200psi or greater, or when the desired pressure reduction ratio is greater than 4:1, e.g., from 200psi to 50psi, or where the inflow pressure fluctuates greatly. The advantage of two-stage serial reduction is that neither valve is subjected to extreme pressure differentials, thus prolonging valve life and delivering more precise pressure regulation.
The parallel installation makes use of two or more smaller size water pressure reducing valves serving a large size supply pipe main. This approach should be used wherever there is a wide variation of reduced pressure requirements such as an apartment building where demand could be .5 gpm at 1am and 100 gpm at 6am and where you must maintain a continuous water supply. Parallel installations also offer the advantage of providing increased capacity where needed beyond that provided by a single valve. In addition, the parallel configuration improves valve performance for wide variable demands and permits servicing of an individual valve without shutting down water flow to the building completely, thus avoiding costly shutdowns.
Water Pressure Reducing Valve Option Guide
To facilitate installation and servicing of the regulator, Watts offers a variety of end fitting configurations, which include union fittings (female threaded, solder, cpvc, and pex), flanged valves, water meter threads and special lay lengths for water meter installations. Please refer to the valve model for specific availability of end connection options.
Using Performance Curves
To match the valve characteristics to system requirements Watts provides performance curves on WPRV specification sheets for each type and size of valve giving the capacities of each with reduced pressure fall-offs up to 25psi. By the use of these charts, the most suitable and economical valve can be selected to satisfy the job requirements. The charts or curves for all types are plotted on a simple basis of rate of flow plotted against the reduced pressure fall-off. In the left hand column, the reduced pressure fall-off is listed up to 25psi. Along the bottom, is listed capacity in terms of gallons per minute flow. In the reduced pressure fall-off column, the “0” represents the reduced pressure setting of the valve when there is no flow (reduced lock-up pressure).
Want more information?
For more information please see our Watts Water Pressure Reducing Valves product guide.
There are a number of ways to save water, and they all start with you.
- When washing dishes by hand, don’t let the water run while rinsing. Fill one sink with wash water and the other with rinse water.
- Some refrigerators, air conditioners and ice-makers are cooled with wasted flows of water. Consider upgrading with air-cooled appliances for significant water savings.
- Water Use It WiselyAdjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered and not the house, sidewalk, or street.
- Run your clothes washer and dishwasher only when they are full. You can save up to 1,000 gallons a month.
- Choose shrubs and groundcovers instead of turf for hard-to-water areas such as steep slopes and isolated strips.
- Install covers on pools and spas and check for leaks around your pumps.
- Use the garbage disposal sparingly. Compost vegetable food waste instead and save gallons every time.
- Plant in the fall when conditions are cooler and rainfall is more plentiful.
- For cold drinks keep a pitcher of water in the refrigerator instead of running the tap. This way, every drop goes down you and not the drain.
- Monitor your water bill for unusually high use. Your bill and water meter are tools that can help you discover leaks.
- Water your lawn and garden in the morning or evening when temperatures are cooler to minimize evaporation.
- Wash your fruits and vegetables in a pan of water instead of running water from the tap.
- Spreading a layer of organic mulch around plants retains moisture and saves water, time and money.
- Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway and sidewalk and save water every time.
- If your shower fills a one-gallon bucket in less than 20 seconds, replace the showerhead with a water-efficient model.
- Collect the water you use for rinsing fruits and vegetables, then reuse it to water houseplants.
- If water runs off your lawn easily, split your watering time into shorter periods to allow for better absorption.
- We’re more likely to notice leaks indoors, but don’t forget to check outdoor faucets, sprinklers and hoses for leaks.
- banner-advertise-with-usIf you have an automatic refilling device, check your pool periodically for leaks.
- Check the root zone of your lawn or garden for moisture before watering using a spade or trowel. If it’s still moist two inches under the soil surface, you still have enough water.
- When buying new appliances, consider those that offer cycle and load size adjustments. They’re more water and energy efficient.
- Shorten your shower by a minute or two and you’ll save up to 150 gallons per month.
- Upgrade older toilets with water efficient models.
- Adjust your lawn mower to a higher setting. A taller lawn shades roots and holds soil moisture better than if it is closely clipped.
- When cleaning out fish tanks, give the nutrient-rich water to your plants.
- Use sprinklers for large areas of grass. Water small patches by hand to avoid waste.
- Put food coloring in your toilet tank. If it seeps into the toilet bowl without flushing, you have a leak. Fixing it can save up to 1,000 gallons a month.
- When running a bath, plug the tub before turning the water on, then adjust the temperature as the tub fills up.
- Walkways and patios provide space that doesn’t ever need to be watered. These useful “rooms” can also add value to your property.
- Collect water from your roof to water your garden.
- Designate one glass for your drinking water each day or refill a water bottle. This will cut down on the number of glasses to wash.
- Rather than following a set watering schedule, check for soil moisture two to three inches below the surface before watering.
- Install a rain sensor on your irrigation controller so your system won’t run when it’s raining.
- Don’t use running water to thaw food. Defrost food in the refrigerator for water efficiency and food safety.
- Use drip irrigation for shrubs and trees to apply water directly to the roots where it’s needed.
- Grab a wrench and fix that leaky faucet. It’s simple, inexpensive, and you can save 140 gallons a week.
- Reduce the amount of lawn in your yard by planting shrubs and ground covers appropriate to your site and region.
- When doing laundry, match the water level to the size of the load.
- Teach your children to turn off faucets tightly after each use.
- Remember to check your sprinkler system valves periodically for leaks and keep the sprinkler heads in good shape.
- Use a water-efficient showerhead. They’re inexpensive, easy to install, and can save you up to 750 gallons a month.
- See how Waterpik® EcoFlow® can help reduce your water use.
- Waterpik® EcoFlow® Shower Head
- ad-waterpikBefore you lather up, trade up your current shower head to a water-efficient shower head such as the Waterpik® EcoFlow® which helps reduce water consumption by up to 40%. Water-conserving shower heads are inexpensive, easy to install, and ad-waterpikcan save a family of four up to 17,000 gallons of water a year.
- Soak pots and pans instead of letting the water run while you scrape them clean.
- Don’t water your lawn on windy days when most of the water blows away or evaporates.
- Water your plants deeply but less frequently to encourage deep root growth and drought tolerance.
- Know where your master water shut-off valve is located. This could save water and prevent damage to your home.
- To decrease water from being wasted on sloping lawns, apply water for five minutes and then repeat two to three times.
- Group plants with the same watering needs together to avoid overwatering some while underwatering others.
- Use a layer of organic material on the surface of your planting beds to minimize weed growth that competes for water.
- Use a minimum amount of organic or slow release fertilizer to promote a healthy and drought tolerant landscape.
- Trickling or cascading fountains lose less water to evaporation than those spraying water into the air.
- Use a commercial car wash that recycles water.
- Avoid recreational water toys that require a constant flow of water.
- Turn off the water while brushing your teeth and save 25 gallons a month.
- Use a rain gauge, or empty tuna can, to track rainfall on your lawn. Then reduce your watering accordingly.
- Encourage your school system and local government to develop and promote water conservation among children and adults.
- Learn how to shut off your automatic watering system in case it malfunctions or you get an unexpected rain.
- Set a kitchen timer when watering your lawn or garden to remind you when to stop. A running hose can discharge up to 10 gallons a minute.
- If your toilet flapper doesn’t close after flushing, replace it.
- Make sure there are water-saving aerators on all of your faucets.
- Next time you add or replace a flower or shrub, choose a low water use plant for year-round landscape color and save up to 550 gallons each year.
- Install an instant water heater near your kitchen sink so you don’t have to run the water while it heats up. This also reduces energy costs.
- Use a grease pencil to mark the water level of your pool at the skimmer. Check the mark 24 hours later to see if you have a leak.
- If your dishwasher is new, cut back on rinsing. Newer models clean more thoroughly than older ones.
- Use a trowel, shovel, or soil probe to examine soil moisture depth. If the top two to three inches of soil are dry it’s time to water.
- If installing a lawn, select a turf mix or blend that matches your climate and site conditions.
- When you save water, you save money on your utility bills too. Saving water is easy for everyone to do.
- When the kids want to cool off, use the sprinkler in an area where your lawn needs it the most.
- Make sure your swimming pools, fountains, and ponds are equipped with recirculating pumps.
- Bathe your young children together.
- Consult with your local nursery for information on plant selection and placement for optimum outdoor water savings.
- Winterize outdoor spigots when temperatures dip below freezing to prevent pipes from leaking or bursting.
- Insulate hot water pipes for more immediate hot water at the faucet and for energy savings.
- Wash your car on the lawn, and you’ll water your lawn at the same time.
- Drop your tissue in the trash instead of flushing it and save water every time.
- Direct water from rain gutters and HVAC systems toward water-loving plants in the landscape for automatic water savings.
- Make suggestions to your employer about ways to save water and money at work.
- Support projects that use reclaimed wastewater for irrigation and industrial uses.
- Use a hose nozzle or turn off the water while you wash your car. You’ll save up to 100 gallons every time.
- Share water conservation tips with friends and neighbors.
- If your toilet was installed before 1992, reduce the amount of water used for each flush by inserting a displacement device in the tank.
- Setting cooling systems and water softeners for a minimum number of refills saves both water and chemicals, plus more on utility bills.
- Washing dark clothes in cold water saves both on water and energy while it helps your clothes to keep their colors.
- Leave lower branches on trees and shrubs and allow leaf litter to accumulate on the soil. This keeps the soil cooler and reduces evaporation.
- Report broken pipes, open hydrants and errant sprinklers to the property owner or your water provider.
- Let your lawn go dormant during the summer. Dormant grass only needs to be watered every three weeks or less if it rains.
- Plant with finished compost to add water-holding and nutrient-rich organic matter to the soil.
- Use sprinklers that deliver big drops of water close to the ground. Smaller water drops and mist often evaporate before they hit the ground.
- Listen for dripping faucets and running toilets. Fixing a leak can save 300 gallons a month or more.
- Water only when necessary. More plants die from over-watering than from under-watering.
- One more way to get eight glasses of water a day is to re-use the water left over from cooked or steamed foods to start a scrumptious and nutritious soup.
- Adjust your watering schedule each month to match seasonal weather conditions and landscape requirements.
- Turn off the water while you wash your hair to save up to 150 gallons a month.
- Wash your pets outdoors in an area of your lawn that needs water.
- When shopping for a new clothes washer, compare resource savings among Energy Star models. Some of these can save up to 20 gallons per load, and energy too.
- Apply water only as fast as the soil can absorb it.
- Aerate your lawn at least once a year so water can reach the roots rather than run off the surface.
- When washing dishes by hand, fill the sink basin or a large container and rinse when all of the dishes have been soaped and scrubbed.
- Catch water in an empty tuna can to measure sprinkler output. One inch of water on one square foot of grass equals two-thirds of a gallon of water.
- Turn off the water while you shave and save up to 300 gallons a month.
- When you give your pet fresh water, don’t throw the old water down the drain. Use it to water your trees or shrubs.
- If you accidentally drop ice cubes when filling your glass from the freezer, don’t throw them in the sink. Drop them in a house plant instead.
- To save water and time, consider washing your face or brushing your teeth while in the shower.
- While staying in a hotel or even at home, consider reusing your towels.
- When backflushing your pool, consider using the water on your landscaping.
- For hanging baskets, planters and pots, place ice cubes under the moss or dirt to give your plants a cool drink of water and help eliminate water overflow.
- Throw trimmings and peelings from fruits and vegetables into your yard compost to prevent using the garbage disposal.
- When you have ice left in your cup from a take-out restaurant, don’t throw it in the trash, dump it on a plant.
- Have your plumber re-route your gray water to trees and gardens rather than letting it run into the sewer line. Check with your city codes, and if it isn’t allowed in your area, start a movement to get that changed.
- Keep a bucket in the shower to catch water as it warms up or runs. Use this water to flush toilets or water plants.
- When you are washing your hands, don’t let the water run while you lather.
The discharge of fats, oils, and greases to the sanitary sewer system is an important environmental and public health issue. Fats, oils, and greases (called FOG for short) build up in sewer lines over time, restricting the capacity of the pipes. Attempts to keep the sewer collection system flowing is a very costly and time consuming effort. Eventually, the pipes can become blocked completely, leading to overflows of raw sewage into streets, storm drains, and our creeks and rivers.
KGID strives to keep all the sewer collection lines through enforcement of it’s Grease and Oil Control Program . The areas of concern or “hot spots” occur primarily in areas where restaurants are present. If not properly maintained, the grease interceptors can overflow and or cause blockages within the sewer collection lines.
Grease can also enter the environment from criminal grease management and disposal practices. KGID aggressively pursues all violators. Businesses that are hiring grease haulers to clean and maintain their grease removal devices need to be careful about who they work with and monitor those activities closely.
The most effective way to reduce these problems is for residents and restaurants to do what they can to minimize the amount of these materials that they send to the sanitary sewer.
What we can do to help
The easiest way to solve the grease problem and help prevent overflows of raw sewage is to keep this material out of the sewer system in the first place. There are several ways to do this:
Never pour grease down sink drains or into toilets.
Scrape grease and food scraps from trays, plates, pots, pans, utensils, and grills and cooking surfaces into a can or the trash for disposal (or recycling where available).
Do not put grease down garbage disposals.
Put baskets/strainers in sink drains to catch food solids, and empty the drain baskets/strainers into the trash for disposal.
Speak with your friends and neighbors about the problem of grease in the sewer system and how to keep it out.
Grease Removal Devices
KGID requires all food service facilities to install a grease interceptor with a minimum capacity of 750 gallons in accordance with it’s Grease and Oil Control Program. All food service facilities should be aware of the importance of installation and proper maintenance of grease removal devices. Existing ordinance provisions for food service facilities are designed to help minimize the impact that these businesses have on the sewage collection system within the boundaries of KGID.
Grease interceptors are installed underground, outside of the food service facility. Grease traps, which are not allowed under the KGID policies, are much smaller than grease interceptors, and are typically installed underneath or adjacent to a three-compartment sink.
Once a food service facility is using a grease removal device to prevent discharge of FOG to the sanitary sewer, it is very important that the device be properly maintained at an appropriate frequency. KGID’s ordinance requires that the contents of grease removal devices be completely removed at intervals outlined within the ordinance. This means that each food service facility must hire a grease hauler to pump out its grease removal devices. Poorly maintained and undersized grease removal devices can be the cause of backups, spills, and increased maintenance costs for the District
Grease haulers pump out the contents of grease removal devices and dispose of the grease at landfills that accept grease waste, or at sewage treatment facilities. Grease haulers pump out the contents of grease removal devices and dispose of the grease at landfills that accept grease waste, or at sewage treatment facilities. Unfortunately, many grease hauling companies have been caught illegally dumping grease from their clients’ grease removal devices into sewer manholes or storm drains. Grease can suffocate fish and is harmful to the plants and animals that inhabit the creeks, streams, lakes, and rivers. Food service facilities can be held responsible when grease from their facilities is improperly handled, and can face large fines as a result. To protect your business and the environment you should closely monitor the activities of the grease hauling companies they hire to be certain that they are acting responsibly. It is recommended that an employee be assigned to supervise the grease hauler. Ask questions about how the hauler handles the grease waste from your facility. Very low prices for grease pumping and hauling services may be an indication that the hauler is not properly disposing of the grease. It is also important that grease removal devices be cleaned in accordance with KGID policies. In some instances, the grease removal device needs to be cleaned out far more frequently to prevent FOG from passing through the device and into the sewer.
The District has seen substantial growth, and with this growth the wastewater treatment staff is faced with many sewage transport and treatment challenges. The largest challenge being the control of fats, oils, and grease being discharged into the sewer system. Grease is the accumulation of animal and vegetable fats found in cooking materials. “FOG”, fats, oils, and grease, can be the cause of many problems in the sewage transport and treatment industry. Blockages by FOG can cause sewage back-ups in homes and businesses. Sanitary sewer overflows in the streets of your neighborhood, caused by grease blockages, can present serious health concerns. Accumulations of FOG at sewer treatment facilities can drastically reduce the efficiency of sewage treatment processes, lowering the quality of reclaimed water being discharged into the environment. Increased maintenance expenditures and costly equipment failure can also be attributed to FOG accumulation in the sewage transport and treatment system. To make a long story short, what you do at home does have an effect on the outside world. Here are some helpful hints for reducing FOG in residential sewage discharges, keeping in mind that grease discharges are predominantly generated from dishwashing and kitchen clean up.
Where Does Grease Come From?
Butter and margarine
Grease Prevention Tips for Everyone
Scrap excess food into garbage can instead of using a garbage disposal.
Wipe out pans with a paper towel before washing them to remove all the grease you can. Never pour grease down sink drains, into toilets or down a garbage disposal.
Collect cooking grease in a used glass jar and discard into the garbage.
Do not pour cooking grease, bacon grease, butter, or any other melted grease down the sink drain, even if you use hot water.
Do not use chemicals to remove grease clogs. Chemicals damage the piping system and move the problem. It does not go away.
Healthy, FAT FREE sewers can do the job they are designed to do! Do your part to keep them clean.