Maintenance Technician I
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Are you having problems with your trash attracting bears? You are not alone. According to the Nevada Department of Wildlife (NDOW) the number of bear complaints has risen sharply in the last ten years, partly due to the increase of people living in bear habitat. For lots of good information about being safe around bears and eliminating your trash as an attractant to bears, visit the NDOW website
Ensuring Practical, Safe Working Water Pressures Municipal and private water supply companies use pumps and pumping stations to boost water supply pressures in supply mains to be able to supply water for fire fighting, high rise buildings to overcome loss of pressure as the elevation increases, and to maintain water supply in water towers and supply tanks. Pressure in water supply mains can exceed 200psi. Most plumbing codes require water pressure reducing valves on domestic systems where the municipal water main’s pressure exceeds 80psi. Higher pressures could rupture pipes, damage fixtures,and injure the people using them.
High water pressures waste water. Many municipalities today not only charge homeowners and businesses high rates for water consumption, but also charge consumers equally high rates for the disposal of wastewater. Furthermore, reducing water consumption, reduces the excess energy required for heating additional hot water.
There are two types of water pressure reducing valves, direct acting and pilot operated. Both use globe or angle style bodies. Valves used on smaller piping diameter units are cast from brass; larger piping diameter units are made from ductile iron. Direct acting valves, the more popular type of a water pressure reducing valves, consist of globe-type bodies with a spring-loaded, heat-resistant diaphragm connected to the outlet of the valve that acts upon a spring. This spring holds a pre-set tension on the valve seat installed with a pressure equalizing mechanism for precise water pressure control.
Installed in series directly after the water meter in homes, commercial buildings, and manufacturing plants, a water pressure reducing valve automatically reduces the pressure fromthe water supply main to alower, more sensible pressure.
Water entering the valve from municipal mains is constricted within the valve body and directed through the inner chamber controlled by an adjustable spring loaded diaphragm and disc. Even if the supply water pressure fluctuates, the pressure reducing valve ensures a constant flow of water at a functional pressure, as long as the supply pressure does not drop below the valve’s pre-set pressure.
A properly sized valve prevents noisy operation or premature valve failure. Over sizing water pressure reducing valves can lead to problems such as wire draw under low flow conditions. In general, the minimum flow through a water pressure reducing valve should be 10% to 15% of the maximum flow rate desired in the system. Also, water pressure reducing valves should be selected based on the flow and pressure ranges listed in the literature, not the size of the pipe to which they will be attached. You should select a regulator whose operating pressures fall within the middle of its rated range.
Watts water pressure reducing valves can increase your water system’s performance, reduce operating costs, and ensure a longer life for other plumbing fixtures. Most simple pressure reducing applications require the installation of a single regulator. However, there are applications that require the use of more than one unit installed in a specific system configuration. When there is wide variation in pressure between the municipal main’s inflow pressure and the functional pressure needed within the building, or when the main’s pressure exceeds 200psi, you should consider using a two-stage, serial reduction configuration. When you want to maintain a continuous supply of water at reduced pressures, you should consider a parallel installation.
The two-stage serial reduction approach uses two valves in series to reduce or eliminate extreme variations between the water main’s inflow pressure and the desired, final reduced pressure. Two stage reduction is recommended when initial pressures are 200psi or greater, or when the desired pressure reduction ratio is greater than 4:1, e.g., from 200psi to 50psi, or where the inflow pressure fluctuates greatly. The advantage of two-stage serial reduction is that neither valve is subjected to extreme pressure differentials, thus prolonging valve life and delivering more precise pressure regulation.
The parallel installation makes use of two or more smaller size water pressure reducing valves serving a large size supply pipe main. This approach should be used wherever there is a wide variation of reduced pressure requirements such as an apartment building where demand could be .5 gpm at 1am and 100 gpm at 6am and where you must maintain a continuous water supply. Parallel installations also offer the advantage of providing increased capacity where needed beyond that provided by a single valve. In addition, the parallel configuration improves valve performance for wide variable demands and permits servicing of an individual valve without shutting down water flow to the building completely, thus avoiding costly shutdowns.
To facilitate installation and servicing of the regulator, Watts offers a variety of end fitting configurations, which include union fittings (female threaded, solder, cpvc, and pex), flanged valves, water meter threads and special lay lengths for water meter installations. Please refer to the valve model for specific availability of end connection options.
Using Performance Curves
To match the valve characteristics to system requirements Watts provides performance curves on WPRV specification sheets for each type and size of valve giving the capacities of each with reduced pressure fall-offs up to 25psi. By the use of these charts, the most suitable and economical valve can be selected to satisfy the job requirements. The charts or curves for all types are plotted on a simple basis of rate of flow plotted against the reduced pressure fall-off. In the left hand column, the reduced pressure fall-off is listed up to 25psi. Along the bottom, is listed capacity in terms of gallons per minute flow. In the reduced pressure fall-off column, the “0” represents the reduced pressure setting of the valve when there is no flow (reduced lock-up pressure).
Want more information?
For more information please see our Watts Water Pressure Reducing Valves product guide.
There are a number of ways to save water, and they all start with you.
The discharge of fats, oils, and greases to the sanitary sewer system is an important environmental and public health issue. Fats, oils, and greases (called FOG for short) build up in sewer lines over time, restricting the capacity of the pipes. Attempts to keep the sewer collection system flowing is a very costly and time consuming effort. Eventually, the pipes can become blocked completely, leading to overflows of raw sewage into streets, storm drains, and our creeks and rivers.
KGID strives to keep all the sewer collection lines through enforcement of it’s Grease and Oil Control Program . The areas of concern or “hot spots” occur primarily in areas where restaurants are present. If not properly maintained, the grease interceptors can overflow and or cause blockages within the sewer collection lines.
Grease can also enter the environment from criminal grease management and disposal practices. KGID aggressively pursues all violators. Businesses that are hiring grease haulers to clean and maintain their grease removal devices need to be careful about who they work with and monitor those activities closely.
The most effective way to reduce these problems is for residents and restaurants to do what they can to minimize the amount of these materials that they send to the sanitary sewer.
What we can do to help
The easiest way to solve the grease problem and help prevent overflows of raw sewage is to keep this material out of the sewer system in the first place. There are several ways to do this:
Never pour grease down sink drains or into toilets.
Scrape grease and food scraps from trays, plates, pots, pans, utensils, and grills and cooking surfaces into a can or the trash for disposal (or recycling where available).
Do not put grease down garbage disposals.
Put baskets/strainers in sink drains to catch food solids, and empty the drain baskets/strainers into the trash for disposal.
Speak with your friends and neighbors about the problem of grease in the sewer system and how to keep it out.
Grease Removal Devices
KGID requires all food service facilities to install a grease interceptor with a minimum capacity of 750 gallons in accordance with it’s Grease and Oil Control Program. All food service facilities should be aware of the importance of installation and proper maintenance of grease removal devices. Existing ordinance provisions for food service facilities are designed to help minimize the impact that these businesses have on the sewage collection system within the boundaries of KGID.
Grease interceptors are installed underground, outside of the food service facility. Grease traps, which are not allowed under the KGID policies, are much smaller than grease interceptors, and are typically installed underneath or adjacent to a three-compartment sink.
Once a food service facility is using a grease removal device to prevent discharge of FOG to the sanitary sewer, it is very important that the device be properly maintained at an appropriate frequency. KGID’s ordinance requires that the contents of grease removal devices be completely removed at intervals outlined within the ordinance. This means that each food service facility must hire a grease hauler to pump out its grease removal devices. Poorly maintained and undersized grease removal devices can be the cause of backups, spills, and increased maintenance costs for the District
Grease haulers pump out the contents of grease removal devices and dispose of the grease at landfills that accept grease waste, or at sewage treatment facilities. Grease haulers pump out the contents of grease removal devices and dispose of the grease at landfills that accept grease waste, or at sewage treatment facilities. Unfortunately, many grease hauling companies have been caught illegally dumping grease from their clients’ grease removal devices into sewer manholes or storm drains. Grease can suffocate fish and is harmful to the plants and animals that inhabit the creeks, streams, lakes, and rivers. Food service facilities can be held responsible when grease from their facilities is improperly handled, and can face large fines as a result. To protect your business and the environment you should closely monitor the activities of the grease hauling companies they hire to be certain that they are acting responsibly. It is recommended that an employee be assigned to supervise the grease hauler. Ask questions about how the hauler handles the grease waste from your facility. Very low prices for grease pumping and hauling services may be an indication that the hauler is not properly disposing of the grease. It is also important that grease removal devices be cleaned in accordance with KGID policies. In some instances, the grease removal device needs to be cleaned out far more frequently to prevent FOG from passing through the device and into the sewer.
The District has seen substantial growth, and with this growth the wastewater treatment staff is faced with many sewage transport and treatment challenges. The largest challenge being the control of fats, oils, and grease being discharged into the sewer system. Grease is the accumulation of animal and vegetable fats found in cooking materials. “FOG”, fats, oils, and grease, can be the cause of many problems in the sewage transport and treatment industry. Blockages by FOG can cause sewage back-ups in homes and businesses. Sanitary sewer overflows in the streets of your neighborhood, caused by grease blockages, can present serious health concerns. Accumulations of FOG at sewer treatment facilities can drastically reduce the efficiency of sewage treatment processes, lowering the quality of reclaimed water being discharged into the environment. Increased maintenance expenditures and costly equipment failure can also be attributed to FOG accumulation in the sewage transport and treatment system. To make a long story short, what you do at home does have an effect on the outside world. Here are some helpful hints for reducing FOG in residential sewage discharges, keeping in mind that grease discharges are predominantly generated from dishwashing and kitchen clean up.
Where Does Grease Come From?
Butter and margarine
Grease Prevention Tips for Everyone
Scrap excess food into garbage can instead of using a garbage disposal.
Wipe out pans with a paper towel before washing them to remove all the grease you can. Never pour grease down sink drains, into toilets or down a garbage disposal.
Collect cooking grease in a used glass jar and discard into the garbage.
Do not pour cooking grease, bacon grease, butter, or any other melted grease down the sink drain, even if you use hot water.
Do not use chemicals to remove grease clogs. Chemicals damage the piping system and move the problem. It does not go away.
Healthy, FAT FREE sewers can do the job they are designed to do! Do your part to keep them clean.